How to Use the HMR

Introduction

How to Use
The Hazardous
Materials Regulations

CFR 49 Parts 100 To 185

U.S. Department of Transportation
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials
Safety Administration

Note: This publication was prepared as a training aid in the proper use of the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) and should not be used to determine compliance with the HMR. Reproduction and distribution are permitted without further permission from USDOT.

[Web Editor's Note: all page numbers referenced refer to the PDF version of this document, visit the "Accessibility" page linked from the bottom of any page in the site for additional assistance with PDF documents.]

 

PREFACE

The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) are issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and govern the transportation of hazardous materials in interstate, intrastate, and foreign commerce.

The primary goal of the HMR is the safety of the public and those whose occupations involve preparing hazardous materials for transportation or transporting them. To minimize risks, USDOT has issued specific requirements for shipments of hazardous materials in transportation. The HMR are divided into four general areas:

  • hazardous materials identification and classification;
  • hazard communication;
    [Shipping papers, markings, labels, and placards are used to communicate hazards of the materials to emergency responders, as well as, to those
    who handle hazardous materials routinely];
  • packaging requirements; and
  • operational rules.

A basic understanding of the HMR is required for compliance with the regulations. The
workbook is designed to assist you with the first step -- learning to locate specific parts,
subparts and references within the HMR.

If you are not sure if the HMR apply to you and/or your business or occupation, answer the
questions on page 15. Check your answers with those found on page 16.

After completing this workbook, it is suggested that you obtain additional in-depth training. Suggested sources of materials and training resources are listed on page 17.

 

INFORMATION/RECOMMENDATIONS

Information

The USDOT issues most of the "Transportation" regulations in Title 49 – Transportation, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR). The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) are in the the volume containing Parts 100-185 and govern the transportation of hazardous materials in all modes of transportation – air, highway, rail and water.

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) has the force of the law. The regulations are issued by Federal agencies to carry out the responsibilities imposed on those agencies by Congress.

 

Objectives

Upon completion of this workbook you should be able to:

  • locate parts, subparts, sections, and references within the HMR;
  • locate and tab reference sections of the HMR; and
  • use the HMR to locate specific information.

 

Materials Checklist

To complete this workbook, you need:

  • a current copy of the HMR in 49 CFR Parts 100 to 185;
  • paper and pen or pencil for notes and exercises;
  • approximately 40 gummed tabs; and
  • a straight edge marker or ruler.

 

Recommendations

The HMR must be used to determine the requirements for shipping hazardous materials and should be treated like a technical or reference book. Read it carefully and always read other sections referenced. When determining compliance always use the current HMR and any Federal Register Notices issued since the publish date. It is recommended that you tab your copy of 49 CFR Parts 100 to 185. A recommended tabbing guide is on pages 6-7 of this publication.

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Structure
STRUCTURE OF CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

Basic Outline

The Code of Federal Regulations follows the same basic outline used for most written material. Headings follow the descending order shown below:

Title: Title 49 – Transportation

SUBTITLE: SUBTITLE B – OTHER REGULATIONS RELATING TO TRANSPORTATION:

CHAPTER: CHAPTER I – Research and Special Programs Administration, Department of Transportation

SUBCHAPTER: SUBCHAPTER C – HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS

Part: Part 172 – Hazardous materials tables and hazardous materials communications regulations, emergency response information, and training requirements

Subpart* Subpart D – Marking
Section* 172.301
Paragraph* 172.301(a)
Subparagraph* 172.301(a)(1)
Sub-subparagraph* 172.301(a)(1)(i)

* Listed under Parts, as needed, in descending order.

Turn to page 1 in 49 CFR Parts 100-185. Notice the CFR title at the top of the page:

Title 49 — Transportation

The Parts contained in this volume are noted in parentheses:

(This book contains parts 100 to 185)

The SUBTITLE and CHAPTER are also listed: Part  

SUBTITLE B – OTHER REGULATIONS RELATING TO TRANSPORTATION:

CHAPTER I –Research and Special Programs Administration, Department of Transportation.............................................................. 106

Now locate the CHAPTER I index:

CHAPTER I – RESEARCH AND SPECIAL
PROGRAMS ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Notice that SUBCHAPTER C contains the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR).

 

Pyramid Diagram

The pyramid diagram below illustrates the HMR format just discussed and the location of the HMR in 49 CFR. [Web Editors Note: the following is contained in a pyramid figure in the PDF.]

Title 49
Transportation

SUBTITLE B
OTHER REGULATIONS

CHAPTER I
RESEARCH AND SPECIAL PROGRAMS
ADMINISTRATION,
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

SUBCHAPTER C
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGUATIONS

Parts 171 - 180

 

Rules of Construction, § 171.9

Unless specifically stated otherwise:

  • singular words include the plural;
  • plural words include the singular;
  • masculine words include the feminine;
  • "must" means required;
  • "shall" means required;
  • "should" means recommended, but not required;
  • "may" means permitted, but not required;
  • "includes" means includes, but not limited to; and
  • "no person may " means no person is required, authorized, or permitted to...

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Exercises
EXERCISE 1: PARTS

In 49 CFR, Parts 100-185, locate the CHAPTER I index and read the headings under SUBCHAPTERS A, B and C.

Fill in the blanks designating the Part where each subject is addressed in the HMR.

Part (Number)

Heading

  Carriage by aircraft
  Carriage by rail
  Carriage by vessel
  Carriage by public highway
  General information, regulations and definitions
  Hazardous materials tables, special provisions, hazardous materials communications, emergency response information, and training requirements
  Shippers – General requirements for shipments and packagings
  Specifications for packagings
  Specifications for tank cars
  Continuing qualification and maintenance of packagings


EXERCISE 2: LOCATING REFERENCE NUMBERS

CFR Reference Numbers. Bold numbers referring to sections are at the top outside corners of each page of the HMR. These reference numbers have the same location and purpose as dictionary locator words at the top of each page in a dictionary. That is, the number on the top left is the CFR reference number that begins that page. The number on the top right of the facing page is the reference number for the last CFR reference number on that page.

It is important to use these reference numbers rather than page numbers to locate HMR information. The page numbers in 49 CFR are always changing because of revisions, additions, deletions, and the annual reprinting of the CFR.

Turn to Subchapter C, the beginning of the HMR.

Subchapter C – Hazardous Materials Regulations
Part 171 – GENERAL INFORMATION, REGULATIONS, AND DEFINITIONS.

Use the reference numbers at the top of the HMR. Notice that Part 171 begins with a table of contents. The table of contents lists headings within Part 171 by section numbers, not page numbers.

Scan the sections of Part 171. Notice the Part and Section numbers in bold at the top of
each page; these numbers refer to the section that begins or ends the page.

 

§ 171.1 49 CFR Ch. 1 (10-01 Edition)
   

Subchapter C - Hazardous Materials Regulations

Part 171 – GENERAL
INFORMATION, REGULATIONS,
AND DEFINITIONS

Sec.

171.1 Purpose and scope.171.2 General requirements.
171.3 Hazardous Waste.
171.4 Marine pollutants.
171.6 Control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.
171.7 Reference Material.
171.8 Definitions and Abbreviations.
171.9 Rules of construction.
171.10 Units of measure.
171.11 Use of ICAO Technical Instructions.
171.12 Import and export shipments.
171.12a Canadian shipments and packagings.

(4) The use of terms and symbols prescribed in this subchapter for the marking, labeling, placarding and description of hazardous materials and packagings used in their transport.

(b) Any person who, under contract with any department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Federal Governments, transports, or causes to be transported or shipped, a hazardous material or manufactures, fabricates, marks, maintains, reconditions, repairs, or tests a package or container which is represented, marked, certified, or sold by such person as qualified for use in the transportation of a hazardous material shall be subject to and comply with all provisions of the Federal hazardous materials transportation law, all orders and regulations issued thereunder, and all other substantive and procedural re-

 


EXERCISE 3: SUGGESTED TABBING OF THE HMR

Subject

Reference

Suggested Tab

General
Exemptions, Preemptions, Registration Part 107 107
Definitions/Abbreviations 171.8 DEF
Hazardous Materials Table 172.101 HMT
Appendix A (Hazardous Substances) Appendix A AP A
Appendix B (Marine Pollutants) Appendix B AP B
Special Provisions 172.102 SP PR
Shipping Papers 172.200 SHP PAP
Certification 172.204 CERT
Hazardous Waste Manifest 172.205 MANFST
Marking 172.300 MRK
Labeling 172.400 LBL
Placarding 172.500 PLAC
Emergency Response Information 172.600 ERI
Training 172.700 TRNG
Classes & Definitions 173.2 CLASS
Precedence Table 173.2a PRE TBL
Waste Packaging Exception 173.12 LAB PK
Packaging-General Requirements 173.24 GEN PKG
Packaging-Add’l Req.-Non-Bulk 173.24a NB
Packaging-Add’l Req.-Bulk 173.24b BULK
Packaging-Reuse 173.28 PKG REUSE
Empty packagings 173.29 MT PKG
Specific Packaging
Packaging-Non-Bulk Part 173, Subpart E NB
Packaging Bulk Part 173, Subpart F BULK
Hazard Class Definitions/Divisions/Packing Groups
Class 1 (Explosives) 173.50 CL 1
Class 2 (Gases) 173.115/116 CL 2
Class 3 (Flammable/Combustible Liquids) 173.120/121 CL 3
Class 4 (Flammable Solid, Spontaneously Combustible, Dangerous When Wet) 173.124/125 CL 4
Class 5 (Oxidizers, Organic Peroxides) 173.127/128/129 CL 5
Class 6 (Poisonous Materials/Infectious Substances) 173.132/133/134 CL 6
Class 7 (Radioactive Materials) 173.403 CL 7
Class 8 (Corrosive Materials) 173.136/137 CL 8
Class 9 (Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials) 173.140/141 CL 9
Other Regulated Materials 173.144/145 ORM
Exceptions
Class 2 (Gases) 173.306/307 CL 2 EXC
Class 3 (Flammable/Combustible Liquids) 173.150 CL 3 EXC
Class 4 (Flammable Solids) 173.151 CL 4 EXC
Class 5 (Oxidizers, Organic Peroxides) 173.152 CL 5 EXC
Div. 6.1 (Poisonous Materials) 173.153 DIV 6.1 EXC
Class 8 (Corrosive Materials) 173.154 CL 8 EXC
Class 9 (Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials) 173.155 CL 9 EXC
Other Regulated Materials 173.156 ORM-D EXC
Carrier Requirements
Rail PART 174 RAIL
Aircraft PART 175 AIR
Vessel PART 176 VES
Highway PART 177 HWY
Packagings Specs
Purpose and Scope 178.1 Scope
Applicability & Responsibility 178.2 App
Specs for Inner Receptacles 178.33 Inner
Specs for Cylinders 178.35 Cyl
Specs for Portable Tanks 178.245 PT
Specs for Cargo Tanks
– MC331 178.337 331
– MC338 178.338 338
– DOT406 178.346 406
– DOT407 178.347 407
– DOT412 178.348 412

178.337
178.338
178.346
178.347
178.348

331
338
406
407
412
Pkgs for Class 7 178.350 RAM
NB Performance Oriented Pkgs. 178.500 POP
Tests – NB Pkgs. 178.600 NBTest
Intermediate Bulk Container Stds. 178.700 IBCs
Testing of IBCs 178.800 IBCTest

 

 

EXERCISE 4: FINDING A SPECIFIC SECTION

A. Locate the definition of a hazard class, for example: Class 1 – Explosives.
– Start by looking in §171.8
– § 171.8 refers you to § 173.50
– Use the reference numbers at the top of the HMR pages to locate "§ 173.50 Class 1 – definitions"
– Read the definition

B. Locate a specific reference, such as "§ 172.201(a)(1)(iii)"
– Use the reference numbers at the top of the HMR pages to find the number closest to § 172.201.
– Follow the step-by-step process illustrated below:

 

§ 172.201 1. Look at the top of the pages in 49 CFR for the bold number (§ 172.201). The first three numbers indicate the Part (172).
§ 172.201 General Entries 2. The title of § 172.201 is "General Entries."
(a) Contents. When a description of hazardous material is required to be included on a shipping paper, that description must conform to the following requirements: 3. Paragraph – "(a)" the first paragraph under General Entries pertains to contents of the shipping paper. § 172.201(a)
(1) When a hazardous material and a material not subject to the requirements of this subchapter are described on the same shipping paper, the hazardous material description entries required by §172.202 and those additional entries that may be required by §172.203: 4. Subparagraph – There are four subparagraphs under paragraph (a). § 172.201(a)(1)-(4)
(i) Must be entered first, or 5. Sub-subparagraph – § 172.201(a)(1) has three sub-subparagraphs: (i)-(iii).
(ii) Must be entered in a color that clearly contrasts with any description on the shipping paper of a material not subject to the requirements of this subchapter, except that a description on a reproduction of a shipping paper may be highlighted, rather than printed, in a contrasting color (the provisions of this paragraph apply only to the basic description required by § 172.202(a) (1) and (2), and (3), or

 

(iii) Must be identified by the entry of an "X" placed before the proper shipping name in a column captioned "HM." (The "X" may be replaced by "RQ" if appropriate.) 6. Find "§ 172.201(a)(1)(iii)" and complete this sentence: "Must be identified by the entry of an placed before the proper shipping name . . ."
(2) The required shipping description on a shipping paper and all copies thereof used for transportation purposes, must be legible and printed (manually or mechanically) in English. 7. "X" is the correct answer.

 

 

EXERCISE 5: COMMUNICATING THE HAZARD

The proper shipping name, hazard class or division, packing group, markings, labels, and placards communicate the hazards of a material. To locate the proper shipping name and transportation requirements of a hazardous material, turn to the Hazardous Materials Table (HMT) in Part 172. The Hazardous Materials Table is the backbone of the regulations.

Use the table of contents at the beginning of Part 172 to complete the exercise below. Fill in the blanks.

Subpart Heading Section
A General 172.1-172.3
B Hazardous Materials Table*                              
B                              172.102
         Shipping Papers 172.200-172.205
D                              172.300-172.338
E Labeling 172.400-                
F Placarding 172.500-172.560

G

Emergency                     Information 172.600-172.604
     
APPENDICES    
Appendix A, Table 1 and 2 to § 172.101–                           
Appendix B to § 172.101–                           
Appendix C to PART 172 –                           

 

* includes: Appendix A – Hazardous Substances
  Appendix B – Marine Pollutants

   

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FREQUENTLY USED REFERENCES

Part 106 Rulemaking Procedures

 

Part 107 Hazardous Materials Program Procedures

(Exemptions, Preemption, Designation of Approval and Certification Agencies, Enforcement, and Registration)

 

Part 171 General Information, Regulations, and Definitions

  • 171.8 Definitions and abbreviations
  • 171.9 Rules of construction
  • 171.11 Use of ICAO Technical Instructions
  • 171.12 Import and export shipments
  • 171.12a Canadian shipments and packagings
  • 171.15/16 Hazardous material incidents - notify/report

 

Part 172 Hazardous Materials Table, Special Provisions, Hazardous Materials Communications, Emergency Response Information, and Training Requirements

  • 172.1 Purpose and scope
  • 172.101 Hazardous Materials Table
  • 172.102 Special provisions
  • 172.200 Shipping papers – Applicability
  • 172.300 Marking – Applicability
  • 172.400 General labeling requirements
  • 172.500 Placarding – Applicability
  • 172.600 Emergency response information
  • 172.700 Training requirements

 

Part 173 Shippers – General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings

  • 173.1 Purpose and scope
  • 173.2 Hazardous materials classes and index to definitions
  • 173.3 Packaging and exceptions
  • 173.4 Small quantity exceptions
  • 173.5 Agricultural operations
  • 173.6 Materials of trade exceptions
  • 173.21 Forbidden materials and packages
  • 173.22 Shipper’s responsibility
  • 173.24 General Requirements for Packagings and Packages
  • 173.24a Additional requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages
  • 173.24b Additional requirements for bulk packagings
  • 173.25 Authorized packages and overpacks
  • 173.27 General requirements for transportation by aircraft
  • 173.28 Reuse, reconditioning, and remanufacture of packagings
  • 173.29 Empty packagings
  • 173.30 Loading and unloading of transport vehicles
  • 173.301 General requirements for shipments of compressed gases in cylinders and spherical
    pressure vessels

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SPECIFIC HAZARD CLASSES

References

• 173.50 Class 1 (Explosives)
• 173.115 Class 2 (Divisions 2.1, 2.2, & 2.3) (Gases)
• 173.120 Class 3 (Flammable liquids/Combustible liquids)
• 173.124 Class 4 (Divisions 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3)

 

Division 4.1 (Flammable Solid)
Division 4.2 (Spontaneously Combustible Material)
Division 4.3 (Dangerous When Wet)

• 173.127 Class 5, Division 5.1(Oxidizers)
• 173.128 Class 5, Division 5.2(Organic Peroxide)
• 173.132 Class 6, Division 6.1(Poisonous Materials)
• 173.134 Class 6, Division 6.2(Infectious Substances)
• 173.403 Class 7 (Radioactive Materials)
• 173.136 Class 8 (Corrosive Materials)
• 173.140 Class 9 (Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials)
• 173.144 Other Regulated Materials (ORM)


Packing groups are designated in Column 5 of the § 172.101 Table and indicate the degree of danger presented by the material. Packing groups are not assigned to all classes of materials. The shipper is responsible for determining the appropriate packing group.

 

Packing Group I PG I

Great Danger

Packing Group II PG II

Medium Danger

Packing Group III PG III

Minor Danger


If more than one packing group is indicated for an entry, the packing group for the hazardous material must be determined using the criteria found in Subpart D of Part 173.

For example: Ketones, liquid, n.o.s. is listed in the HMT as a PG I, II, and III material. The shipper must determine the packing group for the material by applying the criteria in § 173.121, Class 3 – Assignment of packing group.

 

Packing Group Flash Point

Initial Boiling Point

I  

</=35°C (95°F)

II <23°C (73°F)

>35°C (95°F)

III >/=23°C, </=60.5°C (141°F) >35°C (95°F)

 

< less than; </= less than, or equal to;
> more than; >/= more than, or equal to

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE - SUMMARY

[Web Editor's Note: the Hazardous Materials Table is very complex graphically and is presented in the accompanying PDF.  The section below refers exclusively to this table.  Visit the "Accessibility" page linked from the bottom of any page in the site for additional assistance with PDF documents.]

The process of complying (or determining compliance) with the HMR, always centers around the § 172.101 Hazardous Materials Table. Review part 172, Subpart B, § 172.101(a)-(k). A very brief description of this process follows:

 

Step One: Identify the material by:  
  - Proper Shipping Name (Col. 2)
  - Hazard Class or Division (Col. 3)
  - Identification Number (Col. 4)
  - Packing Group, (if appropriate) (Col. 5)

 

REMEMBER, ALWAYS CHECK THE APPENDICES TO THE HMT (172.101)

Appendix A – The hazardous material may also be a hazardous substance.
Appendix B – The hazardous material may also be a marine pollutant.

 

     
Step Two: Check symbols and determine if restrictions (+, A, D, G, I or W) apply. (Col. 1)
Step Three: Determine Packaging – For the material selected, determine the authorized packaging. (Col. 8A, 8B, 8C)
  Check Special Provisions – For the material selected, determine if any Special Provisions apply. (Col. 7)
Step Four: Label the package(s) – For the material selected, determine the required hazard warning label(s).

(Col. 6)

 

[Note: Marking (§ 172.300) and Placarding (§ 172.500), as required.]

 
Step Five: Check Air or Rail Limitations – For transportation by air and/or rail, determine packaging limits.

(Col. 9A, 9B)

Step Six: Check Water Limitations – For transportation by water, determine vessel shipment requirements.

(Col. 10A, 10B)


Additional requirements

  • 172.204 Shipper’s certification
  • 172.301/302 Package Marking
  • 172.402 Additional Labeling
  • 172.504 Placarding
  • 172.602/604 Emergency Response Information and Telephone Number

Appendix A: Hazardous Substances

  1. The hazardous material is also a hazardous substance when:
    • the material is listed in Appendix A (HMT § 172.101),
    • concentration limits are exceeded,
      and
    • the amount in one package, equals or exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ).

      Note: Petroleum lubricants and fuel products are not considered hazardous substances.

  2. Read the footnotes to Appendix A; the footnotes may affect the proper shipping name selection.

Appendix B: Marine Pollutants

  1. The hazardous material is also a marine pollutant when:
    • the material is listed in Appendix B (HMT § 172.101),
      and
    • when in solution or mixture, the concentration by weight is:
      • 10% for material listed in Appendix B,
        or
      • 1% for material identified as “severe marine pollutant” in Appendix B.
  2. Requirements specific to marine pollutants:
    • apply to all Marine Pollutants transported by vessel
      and
    • do not apply to non-bulk shipments by rail, air, or highway.

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TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE HMR
  1. Are You Subject to the HMR?  Yes/No
    1. Do you prepare and offer and/or transport any hazardous material(s) by motor vehicle, rail car, aircraft or vessel? Yes/No
    2. Do you manufacture, repair or recondition containers for the transportation of hazardous materials?  Yes/No
  2. Do You Understand the Scope of the HMR? Yes/No
    1. Industry standards have been incorporated into the hazardous materials regulations. True/False
    2. Some words have different meanings when used in conjunction with the HMR. True/False
    3. Air shipments may be transported in accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Technical Instructions. True/False
    4. Import shipments require certification prior to acceptance by the initial carrier in the US. True/False
    5. Shipments can move through the United States under Canadian regulations. True/False
    6. Hazardous materials incidents/spills may require immediate and/or written notification to the USDOT. True/False

 

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE HMR – ANSWERS
  1. Are You Subject to the HMR?

    If you answered Yes to question 1 and/or question 2, the Hazardous Materials Regulations apply to you. You must comply with all aspects of the HMR, including training of hazmat employees (see Subpart H, § 172.700.) You may also be required to register with and pay a fee to the USDOT (see Subpart G, § 107.601.) Recommendation: Read §§ 171.1 and 171.2 of the HMR to determine how the regulations apply to you.
  1. Do You Understand the Scope of the HMR?
    1. True - Industry standards have been incorporated by reference and have the force of the law. See § 171.7.
    2. True - Some words do have different meanings when used in conjunction with the HMR. Become familiar with the definitions in § 171.8 and use the Glossary on page 18 of this document.
    3. True - Air shipments may be transported in accordance with the ICAO Technical Instructions. For more details read § 171.11.
    4. True - Import shipments require certification prior to acceptance by the initial carrier in the US. See § 171.12.
    5. True - Shipments prepared according to Canada’s TDG regulations may enter and/or transit the United States. See § 171.12a.
    6. True - Hazardous materials incidents and/or spills meeting the conditions in 171.15 require notification to the USDOT. Please read the details in §§ 171.15 and 171.16.

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ACRONYMS AND COMMON ABBREVIATIONS

AAR
Association of American Railroads

API
American Petroleum Institute

ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ATA
American Trucking Associations, Inc.

ATAA
Air Transport Association of America

B of E
Bureau of Explosives (AAR)

btu
British Thermal Unit

C
Celsius or Centigrade

CAER
Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (CMA)

CAS No.
Chemical Abstract Service number

CDG
Carriage of Dangerous Goods Subcommittee

CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund)

CERT
Council of Energy Resource Tribes

CFR
Code of Federal Regulations

CGA
Compressed Gas Association

CHEMTREC
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CMA)

CHLOREP
The Chlorine Emergency Plan

CHRIS
Chemical Hazards Response Information System (USDOT/USCG)

CMA
Chemical Manufacturers Association

COE
Committee of Experts on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods (UN)

CTDG
Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods

CVSA
Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance

DEA
Drug Enforcement Administration (US)

DOC
Department of Commerce (US)

DOD
Department of Defense (US)

DOE
Department of Energy (US)

DOJ
Department of Justice (US)

DOT
Department of Transportation (US)

EPA
Environmental Protection Agency (US)

FAA
Federal Aviation Administration (USDOT)

FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency

FHSA
Federal Hazardous Substance Act

FHWA
Federal Highway Administration (USDOT)

FIFRA
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

FMCSR
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (USDOT)

FRA
Federal Railroad Administration (USDOT)

HM
Hazardous Materials

HAZMAT
Hazardous Materials

HMIS
Hazardous Materials Information System (USDOT/PHMSA)

HMR
Hazardous Materials Regulations

HMT
Hazardous Materials Table

HMTA
Hazardous Materials Transportation Act

HMTUSA
Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act

IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency

IATA
International Air Transport Association

IATA/DGR
International Air Transport Association, Dangerous Goods Regulations

ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization

ICAO/TI
International Civil Aviation Organization/Technical Instructions

IFFA
International Federation of Forwarding Agents

ID No.
Identification Number

IM
Intermodal Portable Tank

IME
Institute of Makers of Explosives

IMO
International Maritime Organization

IMO/IMDG
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

INTEREC
International Regulations Committee (HMAC)

LEPC
Local Emergency Planning Committee

Ltd. Qty
Limited Quantity

MAWP
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

MCSAP
Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (USDOT/FHWA)

MOU
Memorandum of Understanding

MRHT
Marked Rated Holding Time

MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet

NA
North America

NAERG
North American Emergency Response Guidebook

NASTTPO
National Association of SARA Title III Program Officers

NCITD
National Council on International Trade Documentation

NCCEM
National Coordination Council of Emergency Management

NCP
National Contingency Plan

NEMA
National Emergency Management Association

NESHAP
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

NFPA
National Fire Protection Association

NIOSH
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health

NMFC
National Motor Freight Classification

NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

N.O.I.
Not Otherwise Indexed

N.O.I.B.N.
Not Otherwise Indexed by Name

N.O.S.
Not Otherwise Specified

NPGA
National Propane Gas Association

NRC
National Response Center (USDOT/USCG)

NRT
National Response Team

NSWMA
National Solid Waste Management Association

NTTC
National Tank Truck Carriers

NVOCC
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier

OHMIT
Office of Hazardous Materials Initiatives and Training (USDOT/PHMSA)

OHMS
Office of Hazardous Materials Safety (USDOT/PHMSA)

OIC
Officer in Charge

OPA
Oil Pollution Act (1990)

ORANGE BOOK
UN Recommendations on Transport of Dangerous Goods

ORM
Other Regulated Materials

OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OWTT
One Way Travel Time

PG
Packing Group

PHMSA
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

PIH
Poison-Inhalation Hazard

PL
Public Law

POP
Performance-Oriented Packaging

p.s.i.
Pounds per square inch

p.s.i.a.
Pounds per square inch absolute

p.s.i.g.
Pounds per square inch gauge

QT
Quenched and Tempered

RAM
Radioactive Materials

RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1980)

RL
Regulated Limit (Canadian equivalent to RQ)

RQ
Reportable Quantity

SARA
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

SERC
State Emergency Response Commission

SCF
Standard Cubic Foot

STC
Single Trip Container

TC
Transport Canada

TDG
Transportation of Dangerous Goods (Canada)

TI
Transport Index

TIH
Toxic Inhalation Hazard

Title III
"Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know" section of SARA

TOFC
Trailer-On-Flatcar

TSCA
Toxic Substance and Control Act

TSI
Transportation Safety Institute (USDOT/RITA)

TTMA
Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association

UN
United Nations

UFC
Uniform Freight Classification

UHWM
Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest

USCG
United States Coast Guard

VNTSC
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (USDOT/RITA)

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION TERMS

NOTE: See 49 CFR § 171.8 for in-depth definitions

Bulk Packaging
A packaging (transport vehicle or freight container) in which hazardous materials are loaded with no intermediate form of containment, when the internal volume is greater than:

  1. 450 liters (119 gallons) for a liquid;
  2. 400 kilograms (882 pounds) net mass for a solid; or
  3. 454 kilograms (1,000 pounds) water capacity for a gas.
    Note: A bulk packaging is not a vessel or barge.

Cargo
Product, including its packaging.

Cargo Tank
A bulk packaging that is loaded or unloaded without being removed from the motor vehicle. (The tank may or may not be permanently attached to the motor vehicle).

Chart 11
DOT's Hazardous Materials Marking, Labeling and
Placarding Guide.

Compatibility
Relates to possible interactions between a material and:

  1. its container
    or
  2. other products that may be loaded or transported together.

Compressed Gas
Material or mixture meeting criteria in § 173.115(b), (absolute pressure of 280 kPa [41 psia]) at 20°C [68° F] or greater).

Compound
Two or more ingredients that are chemically united.

Consist
Sequentially lists the location of each rail car in a train. May serve as the shipping paper if the consist has all the information required by the USDOT.

Dangerous Goods
International term for hazardous materials.

Documentation
Completed forms required to accompany hazardous materials. For example, shipping papers, certificates, emergency response information, or manifests.

Emergency Response Information
Information that can be used in the mitigation of an incident involving hazardous materials.

Etiologic Agent
See Infectious Substance.

Exceptions
Relief from certain HM regulations; applies to everyone.

Exemptions
Specific USDOT-written relief from certain HM Regulations, for shippers, carriers, or manufacturers; 2 year limit but may be renewed. (Part 107, Subpart B of 49 CFR)

Flash Point
The minimum temperature at which a substance gives off flammable vapor(s). Substance will ignite when coming in contact with a spark or flame.

Forbidden
A material that is prohibited from being offered or accepted for transportation. This prohibition does not apply if these materials are:

  • diluted, stabilized, or incorporated into devices
    and
  • classed in accordance with Part 173. (See § 172.101(d)(1)).

Generator
An EPA term used for a hazardous waste producer and/or shipper.

Grants
Planning and training grants to deal with hazardous materials emergencies.

Gross Weight
Total weight of packaging, including its contents.

Hazard Class
A group of hazardous materials that share dangerous characteristics. The USDOT has identified nine hazard classes based on the dangers posed in transportation.

Hazard Division
A means of sub-dividing similar hazardous materials which require different hazard communications.

Hazardous Material
A substance or material capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, or property when transported in commerce.

Hazardous Substance
A material listed in Appendix A to § 172.101 and the quantity in one package equals or exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ). Material may be in solution or mixture. This definition does not apply to petroleum (lubricants or fuel) products.  Note: For radionuclides, refer to Table 2 of Appendix A to
the HMT.

Hazardous Waste
Any material that is subject to the Hazardous Waste Manifest requirements of the EPA. Refer to 40 CFR Part 262.

Hazardous Waste
A specific shipping document required by the USDOT Manifest and the EPA for hazardous waste shipments. Also referred to as the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (UHWM). If all USDOT requirements [i.e., the basic description (proper shipping name, hazard class/division, ID No., and packing group) are entered on the UHWM, the manifest may be used as a shipping paper. (49 CFR § 172.205)

Identification Number (ID No.)
The UN or NA "four-digit number" assigned to hazardous materials, i.e., UN 1203. ID numbers are listed in Col. 4 of the HMT. Used for identification and emergency response.

in-association-with
Refers to the placement of required additional entries on the shipping paper. Usually placed after the complete description for a hazardous material. May be any format, as long as it is clearly part of the entry.

Incident
Unintentional release of hazardous material(s).

Infectious Substance
Living microorganism or its toxin which may cause severe, disabling or fatal disease. Term synonymous with Etiologic Agent. (49 CFR, § 173.134)

Irritating Material
A liquid or solid substance. Upon contact with fire or air, the material gives off dangerous or intensely irritating fumes. Irritating Material does not include any poisonous material.

Labels
Hazard class identifiers required on hazardous materials packaging; 100 mm diamond shaped (square-on-point); identify hazard class by symbol, color and sometimes, by name.

Limited Quantity (Ltd. Qty.)
The amount of material for which there is a specific labeling or packaging exception.

Marine Pollutant
Hazardous material which is:

  • listed in Appendix B to § 172.101
    and
  • when in a solution or mixture of one or more marine pollutants, is packaged in a concentration (for materials listed in Appendix B) which equals or exceeds:
    1. 10% by weight of the solution or mixture
      or
    2. 1% by weight of the solution or mixture for materials that are identified as severe marine pollutants.

Markings
Information required to be placed on the outside of the shipping container; may include one or more of the following:

  • proper shipping name;
  • identification number;
  • UN standard packaging marks;
  • instructions/caution.

Mitigate
To make less severe. Measures to prevent, or lessen the results of a release of hazardous materials.

Mixture
A material composed of one or more compounds.

Motor Vehicle (Common Carrier)
A motor carrier that transports property for hire.

Motor Vehicle (Contract Carrier)
A motor carrier that transports only property for those shippers with whom they have a contractual agreement.

Motor Vehicle (Private Carrier)
A motor carrier that transports property of which it is owner, lessee, or bailee. Such transportation is for the purpose of sale, lease, or rent.

Multiple Hazards
A material meeting the definition of more than one hazard class/division. The material must be classed according to its position on the Precedence of Hazard Table in 49 CFR, § 173.2a.

Net Weight
A measure of weight referring only to the contents of a package. It does not include the weight of any packaging material.

Non-Bulk Packaging
A packaging which has an internal volume equal to or less than:

  1. 450 liters (119 gallons) for a liquid;
    or
  2. 400 kilograms (882 pounds) net mass for a solid;
    or
  3. 454 kilograms (1,000 pounds) water capacity for a gas.

Overpack
An enclosure that is used by a single consignor to provide protection or convenience in the handling of a package. It may consolidate two or more packages.

Package
Packaging plus its contents.

Packaging
A receptacle and any other components or materials used to provide containment. The packaging must perform its containment function in conformance with the HMR.

Packaging Exception
Provides general relief from certain specification packaging requirements of the HMR.

Packaging Exemption
Specific written administrative relief granted by RSPA from certain requirements of the HMR. Packaging must provide equivalent levels of safety.

Packing Group
Assigned based on the degree of danger presented by the hazardous material:

  • PG I – Great Danger
  • PG II – Medium Danger
  • PG III – Minor Danger

Performance-Oriented Packaging
Container and any other components or materials necessary for the packaging to perform its containment function. Specific testing procedures must be performed and so marked on the
packaging.

Person
Any of the following:

  • Individual
  • Firm
  • Co-Partner
  • Corporation
  • Company
  • Association
  • Joint-stock association (including any trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representative thereof),
    or
  • Government or Indian tribe, (agency or instrumentality of any government or Indian Tribe).

Placard
Hazard class identifiers required on transport vehicles or freight containers; placards are 273 mm (10.8 inches) diamond shaped (square-on-point) and hazard class color-coded. May require numbers for identification and emergency response. (Part 172, Subpart F)

Placarding
Process of determining and applying correct placards. (Part 172, Subpart F)

Portable Tank
A bulk packaging designed to be loaded on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or vessel.

Preemption
State or local requirements that conflict with the Federal hazardous materials transportation law may be set aside by the Federal Government. (See Subpart C – Preemption, § 107.201.)

Primary Label
Label for primary hazard of the material. Class number in lower part of label is required. (49 CFR § 172.402)

Proper Shipping Name
Name listed in Roman type in the HMT, § 172.101. Italicized names are not proper shipping names.

Radioactive Materials
Materials having a specific activity of greater than 0.002 microcuries per gram. (49 CFR § 173.403)

Registration
A person who transports or offers for transportation certain hazardous materials is required to register and pay a fee to the USDOT. (See § 107.601.)

Registration for Cargo Tanks
Procedure for persons who manufacture, assemble, inspect, test, certify or repair a cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle. (See § 107.501.)

Reportable Quantity (RQ)
RQ means the quantity specified in Column 2 of Appendix A to § 172.101 for any material identified in Column 1 of the appendix.

Residue
The hazardous materials remaining in a packaging, tank car, etc. after unloading.

Shipping Papers
Manifest, bill of lading, shipping order, or document to accompany hazardous materials shipments. Must contain information required by USDOT. (See Part 172, Subpart C.)

Solution
Homogenous liquid mixture of two (2) or more chemical compounds. The mixture will not separate during transportation.

Specification Packaging
Packaging specifically designed for a particular class or classes of hazardous material. Packaging identified by UN standard packaging and/or USDOT specification number.

State Variations
Listed in the ICAO Technical Instructions; governmental options differing from the ICAO Technical Instructions.

Strong Outside Container
Outermost enclosure for protecting inner packages and preventing unintentional release of contents during transportation.

Subsidiary Labels/Placards
Identify the subsidiary or secondary hazard(s). Class number must be shown on the label/placard. (See §§ 172.402, and 172.519(b)(4))

Technical Name
A recognized chemical name currently used in scientific and technical handbooks, journals and texts. Trade names may not be used as technical names, unless they are in the HMT.

Transport Index
The dimensionless number on the label of a radioactive materials package. Designates the degree of control necessary during transportation.

Unit Load Device
Any type of freight container, aircraft container, aircraft pallet with a net, or aircraft pallet with a net over an igloo.